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Santa Sofia: struttura e decorazioni - Arte bizantina

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Full text of "A complete grammar of the Italian language .."

SANTAGNELLO, PROFESSOR OF THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE.
FOURTH EDITION, REVISED, IMPROVED, AND ENLARGED.
LONDON: PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, REES, ORME, AND CO.
THIS GRAMMAR IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, BY THELR OBEDIENT SERVANT, M.
SANT AGNELLG Signor Santagnello continues to teach the Italian Language, grammatically.
Miss Santagnello teaches the Italian Language grammatically, and likewise gives instruction in Land- scape Drawing in a finished style, both in chalk and pencil, No.
People in this country entertain an idea, namely, that by learning a foreign language through the medium of another which is likewise foreign, a person may become acquainted with both languages at once.
This, however, is an erroneous idea, and even if adopted by sensible persons, it is not the result of their own reflec- tion, but the insinuation of foreigners, who, coming hither without knowing English, have introduced a new method of communicating the rules of the language they are to teach, in another more familiar to themselves than to the learner.
A person can never become well acquainted with the rules and idioms of a foreign language, unless these very rules and idioms be explained in his ow r n mother tongue ; for if they are set down in a language with which he is not conversant, it is next to impossible for him to make a progress in his favourite pursuit : and although he be well acquainted with it, so as to be able to proceed in his VI TO THE KEADEK.
A similar circumstance occurs in learning Italian.
As the English of all ranks and all classes are more or less proficient in the French language, foreigners, unac- quainted with the English language, in order to remove the difficulty which would attend their teaching Italian with an English grammar, persuade the inexperienced student to learn Italian by means of rules written in French ; who, flattered by the hope of learning two lan- guages at once, will perceive but too late that he has only learned at once to make Gallicisms in speaking Italian, and Italicisms in speaking French.
In order to prevent the evils which I knew by expe- rience would result from so absurd a practice, although I could speak but very little English when I began to teach Italian, I advised my pupils to learn Italian with a grammar written in English.
My advice was soon put into execution, and those learners who had studied with a French grammar for a considerable time, but with little success, began to improve rapidly as soon as they made use of an English one.
It was not long before I felt capable TO THE HEADER.
Vll of the undertaking, and accordingly having succeeded in the completion of my task, I published it with every mark of approbation.
Encouraged by the favour of the public, and solicited by the students of Italian, to compose another on the same plan, but on a more enlarged scale, which would leave the learner of this fine language nothing farther to desire for the attainment of it, I have now compiled one, the subject of the following pages, which I feel confi- dent will answer their expectations.
As the number of Italian Grammars now extant is very great, a new compilation might be considered as unnecessary and useless.
The author of this volume some years back offered to the public a concise Italian Grammar, which, on account of its clearness and precision, was received with every mark of approbation by the learners.
It was, however, noticed by some fastidious critics, who, either X PREFACE.
Of these innovations, and of the criticisms which they have incurred, the author does not intend to speak in this place, as he has given proper reasons for his pro- ceedings in their respective places, when necessity prompted him to vindicate his cause, and to recriminate on those who were so bold as to condemn what perhaps they though Italians could or would not under- stand.
The present compilation is divided into four parts, viz.
XI simple or natural state, exhibiting articles, nouns, pro- nouns, according to their diversified uses ; a new clas- sification of the irregular verbs, which will save the student infinite trouble in committing them to memory; and also exact and proper rules concerning the uses of the tenses, with appropriate examples from the best authorities.
The third contains the Syntax, or construction of all the said parts of speech, divided into rules which are enforced by analogous examples, and attended with suit- able remarks, so as to give satisfaction to the learner, and at the same time make him acquainted with those niceties and modes of expression, which are so essential in learning a language.
The fourth and last part comprehends Orthography, with all its appurtenances, such as the retrenching, aug- menting, syncopating, dividing, and compounding of words, together with prosody and its concomitants.
Lastly, the work concludes with an Appendix, which not only teaches to read and understand the writings of the best authors in prose ; but also points out just rules for composing in a similar style of elegance.
This Appendix, which is not to be found in any other Gram- mar compiled for the use of foreigners, the author has explained in so peculiar a manner, as to make the student easily acquainted with its rules.
Corticelli's, Soave's, Cinonios, Dolce's, and others, which have been written for Italians ; but also a great number of rules and observations, which »no Italian could point out, if unacquainted with the English language.
It has also the advantage over all other grammars, mentioned in the beginning of this Preface, as the author has not set down the smallest rule, nor made the most minute observation, without enforcing it by analogous examples drawn from the best authorities, with a correct, though not literal, translation of the passages in English, which will at once show the right sense of the sentences, and the proper mode of translating from one language to another.
In addition to all these advantages, this Grammar is accompanied with Exercises on a new plan, which being generally composed of sentences extracted from the English and Roman histories, and other works of merit, will, the author presumes, prove both useful and in- structive.
Finally, this Grammar, together with its Exercises, is so compiled as to be useful to those students who either have not the means of employing a master, or who live too far from those places where any may be found.
Ofletters, syllables, and words i.
C, and its different sounds when accompanied with other letters.
D,E10 List of words in which e source differently sounded 12 F.
List of words in which two z 9 s are sounded like ts 34 List of words in which two s's are sounded like ds 35 Ph,K,X,Y 36 Observations on the letters.
A general view of the parts of speech 43 Chap.
Declension of uno with a substantive 55 Chap.
Of nouns in general.
Rules to form the plural of nouns ending in a 63 r play online family feud 2 game nouns ending in e 64 nouns ending in i 65 r — — nouns ending in o.
Of nouns having two singulars and two plurals 70 S three singulars and one plural.
Of adjectives and the degrees of comparison in general.
Of pronouns in general 90 Of personal pronouns ib.
Declension of personal pronouns.
Of possessive pronouns 98 Declension of possessive pronouns 99 Of demonstrative pronouns ib.
Observations on demonstrative pronouns 101 Of relative pronouns 102 Of interrogative pronouns 105 Ofimproper pronouns 107 Chap.
Of the nature of verbs in general Ill Of numbers and persons 112 Of the moods 113 Of the tenses 115 Of the present tense ib.
Of the past tense 117 Of the future tense122 Of the subjunctive 124 Of the imperative 125 Remarks on the tenses 126 Of the conjugation of personal verbs 128 Conjugation of avere ib.
Remarks on verbs ending in are 143 Second conjugation.
List of syncopated participles 214 Chap.
Of adverbs 217 Of the formation of adverbs 218 Lkt of adverbs 219 Chap.
VIILOf prepositions 226 List of prepositions governing different cases ib.
Of conjunctions 229 Chap.
Of interjections 233 PART III.
Of syntax in general .
XV11 Pae-e Of the government of superlatives 273 Remarks on piii with the article 275 Syntax of numeral nouns.
Reflective verbs governing a genitive 379 dative ib.
Verbs governing the infinitive with di before it382 a before it 584 without a preposition ib.
Construction of the infinitive 387 Nature and construction of the gerund 388 Syntax of participles 392 Of the participle present ib.
Of participles followed by an infinitive without a preposition.
Remarks on non, no, si .
Rules 7 e mezzo col califfo retrenching words 429 Rules for abridging verbs 431 General remarks on the abridgment of words.
Rules for augmenting words 434 Chap.
Rules for syncopating words 436 Chap.
Rules for dividing words 437 Chap.
Of compounded words 439 Observations on compounded words 440 Chap.
Rules for placing the accent 441 Chap.
Rules for placing the apostrophe 445 Chap.
Of quantity 444 Chap.
Of punctuation 447 Of the comma 448 Of the semicolon, colon, and full stop 453 Of the interrogative point 454 Of the exclamatory point ib.
Of the dash 455 Of the parenthesis ib.
Of the capital letters 456 APPENDIX.
Of the figurative syntax 459 Of the ellipsis ib.
Grammar may be considered as consisting of two species, universal and particular.
Grammar in general, or universal grammar, explains the principles which are common to all languages.
Particular grammar applies those general principles to a particular language, modifying them according to the genius of that language, and the established practice of the best speakers and writers by whom it is used ITALIAN GRAMMAR.
Italian Grammar is the art of speaking and writing the Italian language with propriety.
This is the definition of grammarians respecting grammar, and, according to its import, every one may easily perceive that it is not poetry of which they speak : yet we see a great number of grammars abounding with examples, extracted from poetical works, intended to give authority to the rules which they set down for speaking in prose.
In teaching, therefore, a language, a grammarian is to consider, that he is to teach speaking in prose, not in poetry; that he is to give rules for composing a dis- course, not for making verses ; that all the examples which serve to illustrate these rules are to be taken from prose writers ; and that the least poetical expression, however beautiful and elegant in poetry, would become ridiculous, were it to be used in prose.
With these considerations in view, we have, in com- piling this work, refrained from http://promocode-slot.win/games-play-online/play-games-like-stardom-online.html extracts from poets, to exemplify the different rules ; a practice not allowed in Italian, in which the fervid language of poetry is rather incompatible with the sober ornaments of prose : however, if the student finds, sometimes, any example extracted from poetical works in this grammar, he may be assured, that those extracts are inserted, because we could find in prose none analogous to the rule in question, or because we thought them proper to be applied in prose.
We have divided this grammar into four parts, treating, Ora- In dividing this grammar, we have not had in view the right order of the subject, but the conveniency of the English student, or any foreigner who wishes to study Italian ; for, had we written for Italians, orthogra- phy should have been placed with pronunciation: but for a foreigner, it would be absurd to tell him the manner of spelling a word which he has never seen or heard.
We, therefore, shall begin with the pronuncia- tion, in order that the learner may find assistance in 1.
Dell' Ortografia OF PRONUNCIATION, 3 learning by heart those words which are necessary to begin the study of Italian.
These words we have ac- cented throughout the grammar, to render their pro- nunciation easy ; but the student, in writing exercises in Italian, is only to make use of the grave accent, which is found on the last vowel of a word.
OF LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND WORDS.
A letter, tettera, is the first principle or least part of a word.
The letters of the Italian language, called the alphabet, alfabeto, or abbicci, are twenty-two.
These letters are the representation of certain articu- late sounds, the elements of the language.
An articulate sound is the sound of the human voice, formed by the organs of speech.
The elementary sounds, under their smallest combina- tion, produce a syllable.
A syllable, sittaba, is a sound either simple or com- pound, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, and constituting a word, or part of a word.
Words are articulate sounds, and are used, by common consent, as signs of our ideas.
A word, parola, of one letter, is called a monogram, monogramma ; of one syllable, composed of two or more letters, a monosyllable, monosillabo ; of two syllables, diss'illabo ; of three syllables, trisillabo ; and, lastly, of four or more syllables, polysyllable, polisillabo.
Alphabet is a word which comprehends all the letters necessary to speak a language.
The alphabet, in Italian, consists of twenty-two letters, which are sounded thus : — A a is sounded like a, in a-rm.
B b bi, in bi-scuit.
C c chi, in chi-cane.
D d di, in di-lute.
E e e, in ever.
F fe'ffay.
G g gi, ingin.
M memmay.
P p pi, in pi -ty.
Q q coo, in coo-k.
T t ti, in timid.
U u oo, in oo-ze, V v voo.
The capital letters are called, in Italian, lettere mpjuscole, and the small, minuscule.
These six letters, b, c, d, g, p, t, which the Floren- tines sound bi, chi, di, as in the alphabet, are sounded bay, chay, day, jay, pay, tay, by the Romans, and the inhabitants of almost all the other provinces of Italy ; but as this regards only their name, and not their pro- nunciation when united to other letters, we think it is of little or no consequence to know their real name.
Some grammarians give only twenty letters, sup- pressing j and v ; but as we think that the alphabet would be incorrect without them, we set them down at once, to save trouble and useless explanations.
OF THE DIVISIONS OF LETTERS.
Letters are divided into vowels and consonants.
A vowel, vocale, is an articulate sound, that can be perfectly uttered by itself, and is formed without the help of any other sound.
The vowels are a, e, i, o, u.
A consonant, consonante, is an articulate sound, which cannot be perfectly uttered without the help of a vowel, but requires a vowel to express it fully.
Consonants seize your glory games play online divided into mutes and serai- vowels.
The mutes, mute, cannot be sounded at all, without the aid of a vowel, or rather they are those whose sounds cannot be protracted.
They are 6, c, d, g, p, q, tf, z.
The semi-vowels, semivocdli, have an imperfect sound of themselves, or rather they are those whose sounds can be continued at pleasure, partaking of the nature of vowels, from which they derive their name.
Four of the semi-vowels, namely, Z, m, n, r, are also distinguished by the name of liquids, liquide, from their readily uniting with other consonants, and flowing, as it were, into their sounds.
A diphthong, dittongo, is the union of two or more vowels, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, without losing their natural and particular sounds.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SOUNDS OF LETTERS, AND ON THE MOST DIFFICULT SYLLABLES AND WORDS IN THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE.
Before we proceed on this subject, we think it is our duty to shew how false is the assertion of a modern grammarian, who, feeling unable, as it appears, to write down rules to communicate pronunciation to foreigners, O OF PRONUNCIATION.
We do not intend to assert, that it is better to learn pronunciation by description than by learning it from the mouth of a native ; but we dare affirm, that proper rules on this subject are not at all useless, but beneficial, not only to those who cannot employ a master, but also to those who have the means of doing so, as, m the absence of their teachers, they may, if necessity requires, have recourse to them.
Persuaded by these reasons, we laid down rules to communicate pronunciation, in our small grammar ; and finding that they have been attended with due benefit to students of all descriptions, either assisted by a master or not, we will set them down again in this new work, with more additions and improvements ; and hope that the discerning student, convinced of the utility of our plan, after a perusal of it, will give to it that approbation which it deserves.
The sound of a, in Italian, is that which is heard in uttering the English a, in the word arm ; and is effected by opening the mouth rather widely, and pushing the breath outwards, without any motion of the tongue.
This letter keeps one unvaried sound, at the beginning and the middle of words, and is uttered exactly as in English.
Ce is sounded like che, in the word chess.
Cie is sounded as if it were spelled cheeay, or rather like chee, in the word cheer; pronouncing, however, the ie with a single impulse of the voice, and right! badcomedian vk answer the emphasis on e.
See nouns in a.
Cio is sounded like cho, in the word chop.
Ibow Chi, absolute, or followed by a consonant, is sounded like kee, in the word keep.
I shut again OF PRONUNCIATION.
Q Ce 9 ci, cia, tie, cio, cm, preceded by an s 3 are sounded in the following manner : — See, like she, in the word she-riff'.
See nouns in a.
Scio is sounded like sho, in the word shop.
I loosen scioglio I loosen croscio crushing disciolto loosened scoscio steep place Sciu is sounded like shoo, in the word shoot.
D is sounded by striking the tongue behind the upper teeth — not as the English do, who strike it against that part of the palate which comes in contact with the teeth.
This letter keeps one unvaried sound, at the beginning, middle, and end of words.
E has two sounds, one open {apertdlike the first e of the word ever, as we said in the alphabet, and another close chiusdlike the a of the word cake.
E is generally sounded open in the beginning of words.
E is sounded open in all the words in which e is preceded by i.
E is sounded open in words ending in e accented, which are not derivatives of verbs.
E is sounded close in the beginning of all the terminations of the conditionals, which are erei, eresti, erebbe, eremmo, ereste, erebbero.
E is sounded close at the end of all words.
E is sounded close in the beginning of all the ter- minations of the imperfect, second imperfect, future, and imperfect of the subjunctive, of verbs ending in ere.
Both e's, in the termination ere of verbs, are sounded close.
These are all the rules concerning the different sounds of e 9 which comprise the greatest part of the words having e ; and with regard to other words, we can assure the student, that the difficulty with which the sound of e is attended is not so great as it is represented by some grammarians ; for if no ambiguity occur in sounding e open or close, it is, if we may say so, of no great conse- quence.
I say, if no ambiguity occur ; because there is a great number of words whose signification is known by the sound of this letter them.
The following is a list of E, SOUNDED OPEN.
Ge is sounded like ge 9 in the word gender.
Jo congeal digerire to digest frange he breaks Gange Ganges Gi is sounded like gi, in the word gingle.
Gio is sounded like Jo, in the word John.
Giu is sounded like jV, in the word Judas.
Giuda Judas Giudeo Jew digiuno.
» gravel ghiado sword ghiera quiver ghierabaldana.
Joy ghiotta dripping pan agghiacciare.
It is sounded hard as in English, when the English words have gl, as the Italian.
It is to be observed, that gl can be pronounced soft only before i, or ia, ie, io, iuo : thus, gli, glia, glie, glio, gliuo.
Gua, gue, gui, guo, are sounded in one syllable, sliding, as it were, on the letter u, and putting the emphasis on the following vowel, exactly as the English do in pronouncing gui, in the words extinguish and distinguish.
From this rule are excepted contigu-o.
This letter has no sound in Italian, nor is there, at present, any word that begins with it, except ho, I have ; hai, thou hast ; ha, he has ; hanno, they have : and that is done to distinguish those words from o, signifying or ; ai, to the ; a, to ; and anno, a year.
Some writers article source attempted to introduce the writing of these four words as part of the verb averc, to have, without an h, and putting an accent on the first vowels, thus, o, ai, a, anno; but they found no imitators.
H, however, is necessary in the Italian language, because it serves to alter the sounds of c and g, preceding e and i : thus, ci and gi are sounded soft, as we said, like chi, in the word chicane, and gi, in the word gin ; but if an h is put between c or g, and the vowels e or i, go here, che, chi, ghe, ghi, the sound of c and g becomes hard.
When h is found at the end of words, which happens only with interjec- tions, thus, ah!
This vowel is pronounced like i in the word ignorant.
Its sound is unvaried at the beginning, the middle, and the end of words ; except when it is marked with a OF PRONUNCIATION.
The sound of this letter is the same as that of i ; but when it makes a syllable with the following vowel, it is sounded like y 9 in the English words yet, you.
L is sounded as in English, in the beginning, the middle, and the end of words.
M is sounded as in English.
M, however, is sounded like n, when it ends a word to which ne is joined.
N is generally sounded as in English, and keeps one unvaried sound at the beginning, the middle, and the end of words.
N, in short, ending a word, and preceding another word beginning with a consonant, is never to be sounded full, as when it precedes a word beginning with a vowel : therefore, the student is not to pronounce conn questo, for con questo, with this ; nonn dico, for non dico, I don't say ; but he is to sound it as it were half n, if we may use such an expression.
O is sounded open, in all words that are derived from Latin, of which au is changed into o.
Another rule may be added to these, which is, to sound o open in the middle of words in which it has the acute accent, or rather to say, on which the voice rests more than on any other letter.
O is sounded close in all words that are derived from Latin, the u of which is changed into o.
O is sounded close, at the end of all words, when it is not marked with an accent; for in that case, it is sounded open, as we said in the second rule.
O is sounded close, in all words ending in one and ore, when it is not preceded by u.
Amazon pudore modesty 8.
O is sounded close in all terminations of the third person plural of the present tense of verbs, whose infini- OF PRONUNCIATION.
PRESENT TENSE, THIRD PERSON PLURAL.
There is, however, a number of words, which, though spelled alike, have a double or triple signification, according to the sound which is given to o, and these we will subjoin for the use of the student.
C 26 OF PRONUNCIATION.
Q, though it sounds, as we said, like coo, in the English word cook, cannot be used in Italian, without the assistance of the letter u, and another vowel, thus ; qua, que, qui, quo, which are are always to be pronounced in one syllable, as the English do, in the words quack, quaker, queen, quoits.
Besides qu is always pronounced in one syllable 7 e mezzo col califfo the following vowel, and cu is separated from it.
Qui, pronounced in one syllable — here, Cu-i, pronounced in two syllables — which.
R is not sounded as in English, as some modern grammarians pretend, but with a stronger emphasis; which is effected by striking the tip of the tongue under the palate, before a consonant only : but it is sounded rather soft before a vowel.
S has two sounds in Italian ; one strong gagliardoand another soft rimesso.
It is rather difficult to lay down sure rules for knowing when s is sounded strong, and when soft ; however, the following ones, if they do not remove the difficulty, will at least give the student some light upon the subject in question.
S, either in the beginning or the middle of words, being followed by a consonant, is sounded strong, as we said above, like s, in the words seldom, salt.
Jo stretch espellere to expel ristaurare.
Jo study again It is to be observed, that s is sounded strong, as above, before c, when c is followed by a, o, u, Z, r ; but if c is followed by e, or i, s has another sound, quite different go here the soft or the strong.
S, preceding a vowel, in the beginning of a word, is sounded strong, as we said above, and there is no need of more examples ; but from this rule we must except proper names beginning with X in Latin or English, in which s is sounded softer.
Xenocrates Senofane Xenophanes Senofonte.
Jo disobey crede si it is believed dis usare to disuse dice va-si it was said con-seguire.
Jo presume sentir-si to feel OF PRONUNCIATION.
In all words ending in oso, and their plurals osi, 5, though between two vowels, is sounded strong.
Two s's are always sounded strong.
This letter is not sounded as in English, as some grammarians affirm.
The English sound it by striking the tongue against that part of the palate which comes in contact with the teeth, which produces a sound rather blunt; but the Italians strike the tongue behind the teeth, which produces a sound clearer and more distinct.
T keeps one unvaried sound at the beginning or middle of words.
The sound of u is that which is heard in uttering 00, in the English word ooze, which sound is effected by projecting the lips forward, and pressing the breath in a moderate way without any motion of the tongue.
When it is found at the end of words, which are not numerous in Italian, it is sounded like u in the word bull.
See the letter Q.
This letter also, like many others to which modern grammarians 10000 bomberman play online nes given the English sound, is sounded differently.
The English indeed sound it by putting the under lip in contact with the upper teeth, as the OF PRONUNCIATION.
Some grammarians have given four sounds ta this letter, others three; but Buommattei, whose footsteps we have resolved strictly to follow in compiling this work, says that z 9 accurately speaking, has but two sounds, one strong gagliardolike that produced in uttering s, preceded by t, thus, ts ; and the other soft, rimessolike that produced in sounding ds strong.
The general rules on this subject are numerous, and these are subject to numberless exceptions; this, how- ever, shall not prevent us from laying some of them down.
But as we cannot entirely remove the difficulty by this means, we shall subjoin a list of a great number of words, with the proper pronunciation of this letter, which we have extracted from the works of those authors who have written on this subject.
Z then in the middle of words, followed by the letter i and another vowel, is sounded strong like ts.
Z in the middle of words, preceded by I and r, is likewise sounded strong like ts.
Z, in words ending in anza, arize, anzi, enza, enze, inza, inze, is sounded strong like ts.
Two afs in all words ending in ezza, and go here in all diminutives ending in ozzo, ozza, uzzo, uzza, are sounded strong like ts.
In the following words, z is to be sounded strong like ts.
In the following words, the two s's are sounded strong ike ts.
Jo sketch abbozzo sketch abbuzzago.
Gaza city addirizzatqjo he who straightens agonizzare.
Lazarus 36 OF PRONUNCIATION.
Ph, K, X, Y.
These four characters, which belong to the Latin as well as to the English language, the Italians have not adopted, but they supply their places with other letters.
Ph is changed intoy in Italian.
Xerxes Serse Xerxes Xenocrates Senocrate Xenocrates axioma assioma axiom X is sometimes changed into c, as in the following words.
Eliso Elysium embryon embrio embryo hyperbole iperbole hyperbole gyrus giro circle, turn Observations on the Letters.
Two vowels of the same name, viz.
Two consonants of the same name, viz.
£o heap up acclamare.
Jo augment aggaffare to catch aggottare to pump up aggustare to taste aggradire.
A diphthong, dittongo, is the union of two vowels, pronounced with a single impulse of the voice, in such a manner that both vowels may be heard ; but the emphasis or accent is sometimes on the first, and some- times on the second vowel.
P-aolo Paul b-eo-no they drink d-ia-no they give ON THE SECOND.
Grammarians are at variance in reckoning the diph- thongs ; but we, to avoid discussions and trouble, will follow Buommattei, who says, that there are as many diphthongs in Italian as syllables of two vowels, and he lays down the following eighteen.
Paul auAurora.
The trittongo is as in the following words.
But if cia, cio, gia, gio, are pronounced in two syllables, ia 9 io, are diphthongs — Cia, cioy cm, gia, gio, giu MAKING ONE SYLLABLE.
Ie, preceded by c or g, different from ia, io, iu, is always a diphthong, as the i is put there to be sounded, and not to soften the sound of c and g.
Besides, if that i were put to soften the sound of c and g, the i of cie and gie would scarcely be audible ; and then the words of which they are a part would have a different significa- tion, as it is seen in the following words.
Of the Division of Diphthongs.
The distesi are those in which the vowels are pro- nounced separately, as if each vowel formed a syllable ; and the principal vowel on which the emphasis play matrix rampage game online is the first.
OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
The second part of 7 e mezzo col califfo treats of the different sorts of words, their various modifications, and their derivation.
There are in Italian nine sorts of words; or, as they are commonly called, Parts of Speech, ngmely : — 1.
Pronorae Pronoun 4 Verbo Verb 5.
An article is a word prefixed to substantives, to point them out, and to show how far their signification extends ; as, the spirit, lo spirito ; the book, il libro ; the house, la casa.
A noun is the name of any thing that exists, or of which we have any notion, as man, uomo ; woman, donna ; London, Londra.
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word ; as, a man is happy because he is benevolent, l'uomo e felice, perche egli e benevolo.
A verb is a word which signifies to be, essere, to do, fare, to suffer, soffrire ; as, I am, io sono ; we love, noi amiamo ; they are beaten, eglino sono battidi.
A participle is a word so called, as it partakes of the nature of the verb and the adjective ; as loved, amato ; spoken, parlato ; believed, creduto.
An adverb is a word joined to verbs and adjec- tives, to express some quality or circumstance respecting them ; as?
Prepositions serve to connect words with one another, and to show the relation which exists between them ; as, before the house, avanti la casa ; behind the church, diecro della chiesa.
A conjunction is a part of speech that is chiefly used to connect sentences, so as out of two or more sen- tences to make but one ; as, you and she are happy, tu ed ella sietefelici ; I see that you are clever, vedo che voi siete abile.
Interjections are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker ; as, alas!
The number of the parts of speech has been variously fixed by different grammarians.
Some have enume- rated ten, others eight, and others more or less.
We, however, have followed those authors who appear to have adopted the most natural and intelligible distri- bution.
OF ARTICLES IN GENERAL.
The Articles, in Italian, are words prefixed to sub- stantives, to point out their gender, genere, number, numero, and case, caso; and likewise to shew how far their signification extends.
The genders are two, viz.
The numbers are two, viz.
The cases are six, viz.
The nominative, nominativo, or caso retto, ovprimo caso.
The genitive, genitivo, caso obliquo, secondo caso.
The dative, dativo, caso obliquo, terzo caso.
The accusative, accusativo, caso obliquo, quarto caso.
For the sake of young pupils, who are often at a loss about the meaning of the cases, we will here insert a brief explanation of them.
Di Pietro : Pietro is the possessor of the hat.
Di paglia : paglia is the quality of the hat.
Diquel: quel is the subject of which we speak.
A y poveri, a?
The accusative or objective case is the same as the nominative, and expresses the object acted upon ; as Peter likes study, Pietro ama lo studio ; Maria loves x virtue, Maria arna la virtu: studio, and virtu, are accu- satives, because they are the objects acted upon by Pietro and Maria.
The vocative case serves to address or call people, and is generally preceded by o, and very often without any mark, as, Oh!
The ablative case, which is distinguished by one of these particles, da, dallo, dal, dalla, dagli, dai, dalle, marks the separation, distance, and is the case coming after all passive verbs; as, separated from the world, separdto dal mondo; far from London, lungi da Londra ; he is loved by her, egli e amdto da lei.
There are in Italian two kinds of articles, one definite, the other indefinite.
The definite article, as we said, serves to mark the gender, number, and case, and is expressed three ways, OF ARTICLES IN GENERAL.
Norn, l'amico l the friend gli amici 2 Gen.
Lo, before masculine nouns, beginning with a vowel, is often found in ancient and modern authors, but we think it is better not to depart from the above rules.
OF ARTICLES IN GENERAL.
II may sometimes lose the u and take an apostrophe ; as, e 1!
Lu though often used by ancient writers, instead of i, is now, and that very seldom, only used with words indicating the date of the month ; and also before quali.
D 50 OF ARTICLES IN GENERAL.
Parte the art le arti Gen.
Parte the art .
Perba the herb Perbe Gen.
Perba the herb Perbe Abl.
Feminine nouns beginning with any vowel but a, may take the article la without elision, in the singular, and without the e in the plural ; but we think it is better to use I with an apostrophe in the singular, and le in the plural, unless the nouns begin with an e, as we have said ; even in that case, however, if the feminine nouns begin with an e, and have the same termination in the plural as in the singular, the article in the plural is to be le, and not I with an apostrophe ; as, Veta, the age, le eta ; Teffigie, the effigy, le effigie.
For if otherwise, the plural would be the same as the singular, without any distinction.
General Observations on the Articles lo, il, la, gli, i, le.
See relative pronouns for their construction.
These words, preceded by the preposition i?
Lo and gli before a noun beginning with s followed by a consonant, and la, le, before nouns beginning with a consonant, preceded by con, are better spelled con lo, con gli, con la, con le.
The student, however, may use them either w r ay without committing a fault, as the best writers, and even grammarians, both ancient and modern, have used them indifferently.
Here are a few examples to give authority to this assertion.
Gerard Narbonese; and again : Bocc.
E quelle colla fante, colla fornaja, e colla trecca, o colla lavandaja, berlingano senza resiare ; and they prate over their cups with the servant, baker, fruiterer, or washer- woman, without intermission.
Soave, one of our best writers, and a grammarian, says : Ma nonfu liber ato, se non dopo die Elvira collo sposo furonpartiti per V Indie, but he was not set at liberty before Elvira, together with her husband, had gone to India ; and again : Stringendosi in parentela colla famiglia Suarez, by uniting himself w r ith the family of Suarez ; l Poets are wont to spell these words thus : — ne lo,nela, negli, ne le.
In some poets of old date, we also find street fighter alpha 2 game lo, in la ; not to be imitated in prose.
Le sue jiglie, se pensa ad opprimerle colle http://promocode-slot.win/games-play-online/play-online-game-puzzle-bubble-at-y8.html istruzioni, ec.
There are innumerable examples, but the above will be suffi- cient to assure the student of the truth of our asser- tion.
E che voi del suo esilio, e dell 9 essere andato tapmo per lo mondo sette anni non siate cagione, questo non si pud negare ; you cannot deny that you have been the cause of his banishment, and of his wandering along through the world for seven whole years.
There is no need of more examples, as all gram- marians agree in this case.
OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE, This article has but three cases, the genitive, the dative, and the ablative, which serve for both genders and numbers; and the nominative and accusative of those nouns that are declined with this article are not distinguished by any mark.
It is declined as follows :— Gen.
Di may drop the i and take an apostrophe, before Kouns beginning with a vowel ; as, di Antonio, or d" An- tonio.
Before nouns beginning with an i, the i of di is always suppressed ; as, effetto d'ira, and not di ira, effect of wrath ; azion dlingrato, and not di ingrdto, action of an ungrateful man.
A may take d, making ad, before nouns beginning with a vowel; as, a Ugo, or ad Ugo, to Hugh.
Before nouns beginning with an a, ad is always to be used, and never a ; as, ad Antonio, to Anthony, ad Anna, to Anna.
Some call them indefinite articles, others call them prepositions, and others other names ; but as the name does not alter their import, we shall call them articles when they precede a noun, and prepositions when they precede a verb.
Da is never altered, though the nouns begin with a vowel.
Declension of the Indefinite Article with a Noun begin- ning with a Consonant.
Peter Roma Rome Gen.
Pietro Peter Roma Rome Abl.
Ugo Hugh Anna Ann Gen.
Hugh Anna Ann Abl.
OF THE NUMERAL UNO, ONE.
As this word cannot be called an article, being the first of numbers, we should have omitted it in this part of the grammar ; but as it is generally used as an article by English grammarians, though in a different sense, we thought proper to insert it here.
Uno is declined with the indefinite article.
Uno is put before masculine nouns beginning with z or s impura; as, uno zio, an uncle; uno spirito, a spirit.
OF THE NUMERAL UNO, ONE.
Uno becomes una before feminine nouns beginning with a consonant ; as, una donna, a woman ; una signora, a lady.
Uno loses its o, and takes an apostrophe, before feminine nouns, beginning with a vowel.
Declension of Uno before Words beginning with z or s impura.
Jo an uncle ad uno sposo.
Jo a husband Ace.
Nom, un libro a booh un angelo.
CHAPTER IIL OF NOUNS IN GENERAL.
Nouns are divided into substantives and adjectives.
A substantive may, in general, be distinguished by its taking an article before it, or by making sense of itself; as, il libro, the book; la edsa, the house; it cavdllo, the horse, are substantives which have no need of any other word to make sense.
Substantives are either proper, proprj v or common, communL Proper substantives are names appropriated to indi- viduals in particular; as, Tito, Titus; Roma, Rome; Frdncia, France.
Common substantives stand for kinds containing many sorts, or for sorts containing many individuals under them ; as, animate, animal ; uomo, man.
Italian infinitives, taken substantively, may be classed among common substantives ; as, il parlare, speaking ; il leggere, reading.
Collective names also, which contain several indi- viduals or things under a singular noun, such as nazione, nation ; popolo, people ; moltitudine, multitude ; are placed among common substantives by grammarians.
To substantives belong gender, genere, and number, numero ; and they are all of the third person when spoken of : as, Dio e il creatore delV universo, God is the creator of the universe.
Dio here is of the third per- son, because Dio is spoken of.
They are of the second person when addressed : as, Dio mio, abbi pieta di me, God have pity on me.
Dio in this phrase is of the second person, because Dio is addressed.
The Italian language has two genders, the masculine and the feminine, which are applied both to persons and things.
The gender and number of substantives may be dis-' tinguished in Italian by their terminations, a, £, i, o, u, which we shall treat separately.
Of the Gender of Substantives ending in a.
Nouns ending in a 9 in general, are feminine, whether they belong to women or things.
PA'sia Asia FEuropa Europe la Russia.
Russia Roma Rome Sicilia Sicily PA'frica 1 Africa P America.
France Londra London Malta Malta 2.
Nouns ending in a, expressing dignities, profes- sion, and religion, belonging to men, are masculine.
Proper names of men ending in a are masculine.
Drammq, signifying a drachm, is of the feminine gender.
Fantasma is common to both genders ; and we say, il fantasma, or la fantasma.
Of the Gender of Substantives ending in e.
Nouns denoting men, states, rivers, and the car- dinal points, ending in e, are of the masculine gender, and names of cities are of the feminine.
Michele Michael II Modonese The State of Modena IlTevere,The Tiber OF THE GENDER.
Nouns ending in ie and udine, are feminine without exception.
Nouns ending in ere and ole, which terminations may change in ero and oh, are masculine.
Nouns ending in ore are masculine, without ex- ceptions.
Arbore, more used in the feminine.
Carcere, and gregge, used in both genders in the sin- gular, and in the feminine in the plural.
Dimane, signifying the morning, is only feminine.
Fonte, signifying a spring, is feminine only.
Fune, better used in the feminine.
Fine, signifying aim or design, is masculine only.
Fronte, better used in the feminine.
Noce, signifying the fruity is feminine ; when it signifies the tree, it is masculine.
Oste, signifying host, as above, is masculine only; meaning an army, it is feminine only.
There are many more nouns ending in e of both gen- ders, such as giovane, a youth ; erede, heir ; parente, relation ; fante, a servant, which are masculine when they belong to men, and feminine when they belong to women.
Of the Gender of Substantives ending in i.
Nouns denoting men, rivers, and states, ending in i, are of the masculine gender.
Giovanni John il Mississippi.
Thursday ilLunedi Monday il Venerdi.
Names of cities and islands ending in i, are of the feminine gender.
Napoli Naples Cipri Cyprus Algieri Algiers j Tunisi Tunis All other nouns ending in i, are of the feminine gender.
Of the Gender of Substantives ending in o.
Nouns ending in o, whether belonging to men or things, are masculine.
Pietro Peter il libro book il cielo heaven Except la mdno, hand.
Saffo Sappho A'tropo Atropos Clio Clio Aletto Alecto Dublino Dublin Cairo only is masculine.
Dido Dido Cloto Clotho Erato Erato Corinto Corinth l Cartago, Carthage, and immdgo, image, are also feminine, accord- ing to the general rule ; but they are used by poets only.
Of the Gender of Substantives ending in u.
Nouns ending in u are but few, and generally of the feminine gender.
Ragil 9 however, though not a proper name, is likewise masculine, and signifies a ragout, or fricassee.
General Rule to find out the Gender of some particular Nouns.
Proper names of men, angels, infernal deities, repre- sented under the figure of man, no matter what termi- nation they have, are of the masculine gender ; and names of women, and deities represented under the figure of women, are of the feminine gender.
Proper names of rivers, kingdoms, and states, are of the masculine gender ; and those of cities, islands, and empires, of the feminine gender.
Observe, that in speaking of the plurals, we intend to speak both of substantives and adjectives.
Masculine nouns in a make their plural by changing a into i ; as — SINGULAR.
Masculine nouns ending in ca and ga, make their plural by changing ca and ga into chi and ghi ; as — SINGULAR.
Feminine nouns ending in a make their plural by changing a into e ; as — SINGULAR.
Feminine nouns ending in ca and ga 9 make their plural by changing ca and ga into die and ghe ; as — SINGULAR.
Nouns ending in ta with an accent, make their plural by changing the article only ; as— SINGULAR.
Nouns in cia and gia, make their plural by chang- ing cia and gia into ce and ge, provided cia and gia make but one syllable ; as — SINGULAR.
Nouns ending in e i whether substantives or adjec- tives, masculine or feminine, form their plural by chang- ing e into i ; as — SINGULAR.
The following nouns are irregular in the forma- tion of their plural.
Nouns ending in i, whether masculine or feminine, whether their last vowel is accented or not, or whether they are substantives or adjectives, become plural by changing the article only ; as — SINGULAR.
Nouns ending in o, whether masculine or feminine, substantives or adjectives, are rendered plural by chang- ing o into i ; as — SINGULAR.
Except the following, which deviate from the general rule.
There are some possessive and demonstrative pro- nouns ending in o, of which the plural is irregular ; but we refrain from speaking of them here, because we are treating of nouns.
Nouns ending in chio and ccliio are rendered plural by changing those terminations into chj and cchj 1 ; as — SINGULAR.
But the student would do better to adhere to the above rules ; for chi and cchi are the plural of nouns ending in co or ceo, which see in the next page.
Nouns in co of two syllables, whether substantives or adjectives, become plural by changing that termina- tion into chi ; as — SINGULAR.
PLURAL, il cuoco cook i cuochi il fico.
The following examples will confirm what we say, but they are not to be imitated.
Buommattei says: Onde tutti gli orecchi intendono, Therefore http://promocode-slot.win/games-play-online/call-of-duty-nazi-zombies-online-game-to-play.html the ears hear it; instead of orecchj or orecchia.
Macchiavelli says : Nella copia degli edifizi, in the great number of buildings; instead of edifizj.
Borghini says: Non erano gli operai, the workmen were not; instead of operaj.
Nouns ending in co, of more than two syllables, ate generally rendered plural by changing co into ci, when.
Jig pecker pudico chaste il rammarico.
Nouns in go are rendered plural, by changing go into ghi ; as — SINGULAR.
Ann gli alberghi l'usbergo corslet gli usberghi il catalogo catalogue i cataloghi Except the following ones, which make gL il teologo theologist i teologi Tasparago asparagus gli asparagi 8.
The following nouns ending in co and go, make ci and gi, chi, and ghi, in the plural ; as — 1'apologo apologue analogo analagous l'astrologo.
Rule to form the Plural of Nouns ending in u.
Nouns in u become plural by changing only the article; as — SINGULAR.
Heteroclite nouns are those which vary from the common forms of declension.
Some of these have two singulars and one plural, others have two singulars and two plurals ; others again have one singular and two plurals ; and some even three, of all of which we shall treat separately.
Of Nouns having two Singula?
Nouns ending in ere of the masculine gender, may change that termination into ero, but their plural is always in eri ; as — SINGULAR.
Of Nouns having two Singulars and two Plurals.
The following nouns have two singulars and two plurals ; but as some of them are not so much used as others, they will be distinguished by an asterisk.
Sorta y singular, and sorte, or sorti, plural, are used in speaking of ~kind, species, or sort ; and sorte, singular, is used only in speaking of destiny.
Of Nouns having three Singulars cmd one Plural.
The following nouns have three singulars ending in e, in o, and in i ; the latter, however, though often OF HETEROCL1TE NOUNS.
As some of the following nouns have one plural not so much in use as the other, we shall distinguish those that are rather obsolete by an asterisk.
} precept 1 comandamenti I.
Gli anelli is used in speaking of the links of a chain, as in Ganganelli ; dal cielo alia terra vi e una catena tale die se non sene tengono bene tutti gli anelli, gV increduli non si vinceranno rnai, there is such a chain from heaven to earth, that if we do not catch hold of all the links of it, misbelievers will never be overcome ; and le anella, in speaking of golden rings, as in Bocc.
Bracci is seldom used for arms, but it may be used for yards or ells.
I carri means carts.
I cigli is seldom used for eyebrows, but it may be used for ridges.
I corni is only used for French horns.
I diti is used in speaking of a measure — inch.
I gomiti means creeks, or a measure of a foot and a half.
Some grammarians have given to labbro, membro, besides the above plurals, another ending in e, such as le labbre, le membre, but these are better used in poetry.
Pago needle gli aghi le agora il borgo borough i borghi le borgora il corpo body i corpi le corpora il dono gift i doni le donora il lato side i lati le latora il palco scaffold i palchi le palcora il tempo time i tempi le tempora il tetto roof i tetti le tettora These feminine plurals, however, are not used at pre- sent, except tempora, which is used in speaking of the fasting days, three of which happen in each season of the year, saying, le quattro tempora.
Of Nouns being Masculine in the Singular, and Feminine in the Plural, and ending in a instead qfo.
Of Nouns having one Masculine Singular, and three Plurals, one ending in i of the Masculine Gender, and izoo ending in e and in a of the Feminine.
Ifrutti means fruits of labour, revenue, profit ; le frutta and lefrutte signify both the production of trees and plants, and the dessert, signifying the fruit eaten after dinner.
I gesti means gestures.
Legni means any kind of ships, and also carriages.
Defective nouns are those that, from the nature of the things they express, have one number only, either singular or plural.
The following ones have no singular.
Collectives, as we have said, page 56, are those nouns which designate several individuals under a singular noun, and are divided into general and partitive.
The partitive collectives are those which comprise a part of a collection of individuals or objects ; as, parte, a part; quantita, quantity.
Respecting the concordance of the adjective, verb, and participle, with these nouns, see Syntax of Verbs.
OF ADJECTIVES, AND THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON IN GENERAL.
The positive, which is nothing else but the adjective, expresses the quality of the substantive, without increase or diminution ; as — bello handsome brutto ugly dotto learned saggio wise 1 Grammarians have given the above names to the adjectives; but we are of opinion that the positive cannot be enumerated among the degrees of comparison ; because in saying uomo bello, a handsome man, we only express, by the positive bello, the quality, or rather the beauty of uomo, but do not compare him 7 e mezzo col califfo another.
However, as that cannot alter our purpose, we have followed the example of our predecessors.
E 2 76 OF DEFECTIVE NOUNS.
OF ADJECTIVES OR POSITIVES.
Those in o are of the masculine gender ; and by changing o intothey become feminine.
They are rendered plural by changing o into i, and a into e ; as — MAS.
Those ending in e are of both genders, and become plural by changing e into i ; as — un uorao felice a happy man una donna felice a happy woman uomini felici happy men donne felicihappy women 3.
There is but one adjective ending in i 9 pari, which is of both genders and numbers ; as— pari studio equal study pari eta the same age pari esempj .
Comparatives serve to compare one object with ano- ther ; and, as a comparison may be effected in three ways, we shall distinguish them by three names, viz.
Comparatives of equality compare one thing with another, without increase or diminution ; and are formed by means of these adverbs, tanto.
Comparatives of superiority compare one thing with another, with increase ; and are formed by means of the adverb piu, more, which is put before the posi- tive; as — Pietro e piu dotto di suo fratello Peter is more learned than his brother Anna e piu bella di sua sorella Anna is more handsome, or handsomer, than her sister 3.
Comparatives of inferiority compare one thing with another, with diminution ; and are formed by means of the adverb meno, less, which is put before the positive ; as— Pietro e meno dotto di suo fratello Peter is less learned than his brother Anna e meno bella di sua sorella Anna is less handsome than her sister Observation.
To increase the comparison, both of superiority and inferiority, we put before piu and meno the following adverbial particles, via, vie, assdi, molto, still or much, of which via and vie are sometimes spelled separately, and sometimes joined to piu, thus ; viappiu, vieppiu.
Pietro e via piu, or viappiu, dotto di suo fratello Pietro e vie piu, or vieppiu, dotto di suo fratello Peter is still or much more learned than his brother OF COMPARATIVES.
The superlative increases or lessens the positive to the highest or lowest degree, as altissimo, very tall ; pic- colissimo, very small.
Superlatives, in Italian, are divided into comparative and absolute.
The superlative comparative is formed by putting il piil, la piu, i piit, le piit, the most, before the adjective or positive; as — il piii dotto the most learned man la piu virtuosa the most virtuous woman i piu vecchj the most old, or oldest, men le piu brutte the most ugly women The superlative absolute is formed by changing the 80 OF SUPERLATIVES.
They end in o for the masculine, in a for the feminine, in i for the masculine plural, and in e for the feminine plural.
These adverbs are oltre misura, beyond measure ; oltre ogni credere, beyond belief; oltremodo, estremamente, senza fine, extremely ; fuor di misura, senza modo, ex- cessively ; and others which may be learned by practice, and the perusal of good authors.
OF AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES.
The Italian language has a peculiarity, which is, to augment or diminish the signification of nouns, whether substantives or adjectives, by the addition of a few let- ters ; and then they are called augmentatives, aumenta- tivi, or accrescitivi ; or diminutives, diminutivi.
Nouns become augmentatives, 1.
By changing their last letter into one for both gen- ders ; and then they denote something large or great.
« knife un coltellone.
By changing their last letter into ino, etto, ello, for the masculine, and ina, etta, ella, for the feminine ; and then they denote something small or young, and some- times small and pretty.
« young shepherd pastora .
By changing their last letter into uccio, uzzo, icci- nolo, for the masculine, and uccia, uzza, icciuola, for the feminine ; and then they denote something small or little, but at the same time mean or contemptible ; as — C uomuzzo a mean or an ill— uomo man -?
Augmentatives ending in one, may also end in ma for the feminine ; but the termination in one is preferable, Nouns ending naturally in one, accio, ino, etto, ello, uccio, uzzo 9 icciuolo, cannot be made augmentatives and diminutives as above ; but by the aid of some other words which are put either before or after them.
OF NUMERAL NOUNS IN GENERAL.
Numeral nouns are of three sorts ; viz.
The cardinal, or principal numbers, are those which mark.
The ordinal numbers are those which mark order ; as, first, second, third, prbno, secondo, terzo.
Distributives, or collectives, are those numbers which signify a numbered quantity ; as, a dozen, a score, a thousand, una dozzina, ana ventina, iin migliajo.
OF THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.
OF THE CARDINAL OR PRINCIPAL NUMBERS.
These numbers are called cardinal, or principal, be- cause they mark a number without order.
OF THE CARDINAL NUMBERS, 85 sessanta sixty settanta seventy ottanta eighty novanta ninety cento a hundred dugento two hundred trecento three hundred quattrocento, ec four hundred, fyc.
Cardinal numbers are generally adjectives of both genders ; but have no singular.
Uno, as an adjective, makes una for the feminine, and has no plural, see page 54; but as a substantive, it makes wni and une in the plural.
See Syntax of Numeral Nouns.
Mille is of both genders, and makes mUa in the plural.
Milione, which may be called rather a distributive or collective, than a cardinal, makes milioni go here the plural ; and, as it is always a substantive, it governs the genitive ; so that we cannot say milione uomini, but un milione, or due milioni, d'uomini, a million or two millions of men.
Instead of due cento and due mila, we say dugento, dumila.
In playing at cards or dice, the numbers from two to ten, as the first number in speaking of cards and dice is called assdbecome substantives of the masculine gender, and have their plural 1 ; as — Un due, a two ; tre dm, three twos ; un quattro, a four ; tre quattri, three fours ; un cinque, a five ; quattro cinqui, four fives ; un otto, an eight ; due otti, two eights ; un nove, a nine ; due novi, two nines.
Except tre, sei, and died, which have no plural, be- cause tre is an accented word, and sei and died end in i 9 which words, as we have said in speaking of the sub- stantives, have no plural.
We think it better to follow the rule of Buommattei.
OF THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.
In counting the hours of the day, the cardinal num- bers, from one to twelve, take the definite article femi- nine.
Ie sei one two three.
Jive six o'clock Twelve o'clock, however, may be expressed by mez- zodi and mezzanotte.
If they are in the dative, alia or alle is to be used ; and if in the ablative, dalla, or dalle.
These numbers are called ordinal.
Ordinal numbers, like adjectives, have both genders and numbers.
Their natural termination in o is mas- culine, and by changing o into «, they become feminine ; as for their plural, o is changed into i, and a into e ; as — MAS.
OF COLLECTIVE OR DISTRIBUTIVE NUMBERS.
OF PRONOUNS Link GENERAL.
As to the division of pronouns, grammarians are at variance.
Some have classed them in one way, some in another, and some have called them by different names; but as names do not alter the signification of things, and as, in teaching, the easiest rules are the best, we, in order to render this treatise on pronouns clearer, have, in a few instances, deviated from our predecessors.
We say, therefore, that there are six sorts of pro- nouns.
Personal pronouns are so called, because they mark persons; and they admit of genders, numbers, and cases.
These pronouns have three persons, who may be the subject of any discourse ; the first is the person who speaks, the second is the person spoken to, and the third is the person spoken of; and as the speakers and the persons spoken to or of may be more than one, so OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
First person Io I noi we Second tu thou voi.
The persons speaking and spoken to, or rather the first and second persons, http://promocode-slot.win/games-play-online/marble-games-online-play.html of the singular and plural, are of both genders ; but the persons or things spoken of, or rather the third persons, are marked by a distinc- tion of gender : so that egli, he, marks the masculine gender, and ella, she, the feminine, in the singular ; eglino marks the masculine, and elleno the feminine, in the plural.
Declension of Personal Pronouns.
From the personal pronouns are derived — the disjunctive i disgiuntivi, or i separativi the conjunctive i congiuntivi, or gli affissi the relative i relativi, or gli affissi As these pronouns are derivations, they are also called derivatives, derivativi.
These pronouns are declined with the indefinite arti- cle, di } a, da.
I Io l Gen.
They have indeed said something about it ; but they have applied it to things only ; such as, of it or of them, from it or from them, and not to persons, as above.
The examples which we have given in the syntax of personal pronouns, will justify us for this bold insertion, as some have been pleased to term it, in order to appear critics.
Observations on the Personal Pronouns in their first state.
Ella, she, and elle, its plural, as an abbreviation of ellenO have often been used by poets in the oblique cases for lei and loro ; but it is a poetical licence, and not to be imitated.
Io vidi Francesco, egli era afHitto.
I saw Francishe was sorrowful.
Ho comprato un cavallo, egli e forte.
Ho una gatta, ella e piccolissima.
Ecco un bel Cupido, egli e ben dipinto.
There is a fine Cupid, he is well painted.
Ecco Diana, ella e la dea de' boschi.
There is Diana, she is the goddess of the woods.
Observations on Disjunctive Pronouns.
These pronouns are so called, because they are never joined to the verb, whether they are put before or after it.
A lui, to him, a lei, to her, a loro, to them, have often been used without a ; as — Io dissi lui I told kim egli diede lei he gave her noi parliamo loro we speak to them 3.
Observations on Conjunctive and Relative Pronouns.
The pronouns conjunctive are so called, because they may be joined to a verb when put after it, and make one word with it ; as — ella amavami she loved me egli parlavati he spoke to thee per vederci in order to see us 2.
The pronouns relative are so called, because they refer to some persons or things spoken of before ; as — Pietro e venuto ed io non Pho visto.
Peter is come and I have not seen him.
Gioanna e bella, eppure egli non Tama.
These pronouns may also be called conjunctive, because they may, like conjunctive pronouns, be joined to the verb, when they are put after it, and make one word with it.
Mi, ti, vi, si, ne, may or rnay not drop their last letter, and take an apostrophe, before a verb beginning with any vowel but i ; for in that case the i must always be dropped.
But we think it is better to spell it whole, thus, ci evita.
Lo, and la, may drop their last letter, and take an apostrophe, before a verb in its compound tense ; for OF TERSONAL PRONOUNS.
II is put before verbs beginning with any consonant but s followed by another consonant ; as — io il conosco I know him ella il diceVa she said it or so eglino il credono they believe it Lo is put before verbs beginning with any consonant or vowel, as we said above.
Li is put before verbs beginning with a consonant only.
Possessive pronouns are either copulative, copulativi ; or absolute, assoluti.
They are called copulative, when, like adjectives, they agree with the substantives with which they are accom- panied, in gender and number.
These pronouns here declined with the definite article ; il and la, for the singular; and i and le, for the plural.
These pronouns are to agree with the object or thing possessed, not with the possessor, as in English ; so that, in translating her husband, his wife, you are to say, il suo marito, la sua moglie, and not la sua marito, il suo rnoglie.
Suo, sua, suoi, sue, are changed into di lui and di lei, when they cause ambiguity : as, for example, if one were to speak of a brother and a sister, and say, his Jwuse is elegant, and her garden is full of flowers, his and her should not be translated suo, sua, but di lui and di lei, thus : — la di lui casa e elegante, e il di lei giardino e pieno di fiori.
I di lui libri, his books ; le di lei case, her houses.
Loro, as it is seen, has no variation, being of both genders and numbers.
Demonstrative pronouns are those which precisely point out the subjects to which they relate; as- — questo signore this gentleman quella dama.
These pronouns are of three sorts in Italian.
The first comprehends those which point out per- sons or things near the person who speaks; as the following.
The second sort comprehends those which point out persons or things near the person addressed ; as the following.
The third sort comprehends those which point out- persons or things distant from the speaker and the per- son addressed ; viz.
All these pronouns are declined with the indefinite article, di, a 9 da ; as — MAS.
The plurals of the adjective pronouns may be subjected to the same rules as the singular, without com- mitting a fault ; but we advise the student not to drop their last vowel, unless that vowel is the same as that with which the substantive begins ; as — questi onori these honours quest' ignorant!
QucIIo is put entire before words beginning with s followed by a consonant, and is changed into quegli for the plural ; as — quelio SCOgllO that rock quegli scogli those rocks 5.
Qucllo loses its last vowel at pleasure, and takes an apostrophe in the place of it, before words beginning with any vowel but o.
In that case, qucllo is to drop its o without exception ; and in the plural it makes quegli, which, is not to drop the vowel, unless the substantive begins with an i.
Relative pronouns are such as relate to some word or phrase spoken of before, which is called the antecedent.
In Italian these pronouns are two, che 9 and quale ; to which may be added, cui 9 chi 1.
Che, referring to persons or things, is declined with the indefinite article, di, a 9 da.
Che, referring to a whole phrase spoken of before, is declined with the definite article il, and is always of the masculine gender.
Egli e partito da Londra, il che me displace molto, he left London, which I am very sorry for.
Quale is declined with the definite article, il, for the masculine, and la, for the feminine ; and makes quali in the plural, for both genders.
However, we have inserted them for the sake of facility.
Singular, Masculine, and Feminine.
Che may drop the last letter, and take an apos- trophe, before any vowel.
Che io, or, cK io amw, which I love ; che aveva, or, cK aveva, which he had.
These pronouns are called interrogative, because they serve to ask questions.
They are, chi, che, and quale, and are declined with the indefinite article, di, a, da, as follows : — Nom.
Che 1 may or may not lose its last vowel before a word beginning with a vowel, and take an apostrophe ; as — Che, or ch'uomo e colui?
Che, or ch'e questo?
F3 106 OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
The student, however, will do better to make use of che entire, before a vowel or a consonant.
Quale may or may not lose its last vowel in the sin- gular, and take an apostrophe at pleasure, before words beginning with a vowel : before words beginning with a consonant, it takes no apostrophe ; as — Qual'e la casa?
Di qual onor parlate?
A qual casa appartiene?
See the first examples of quale, underneath.
Chi is used in speaking of persons of both genders and numbers ; as — B.
Disse Beltramo : e chi e la damigella?
Bel- tram said : and who is the young lady?
The ladies who were awake hearing the noise, said, who is there?
Che is used in speaking of persons and things, and is of both genders and numbers.
Or che avesti, chefai cotal viso f Now, what is the matter with you— why do you make such faces?
Quale is used in speaking of persons and things, is of both genders, and makes quail in the plural.
Qual amore, qual ricchezza, qual par entado avrebbe i sospiri di Tito con tarda efficaciafatti a Gisippo nel cuor sentire, se non costei?
What love, wealth, or affinity, could have wrought online play game temple run oz effectually upon the heart of Gisippus, as to make him feel the pangs of Titus, but this friendship?
Quali stati, quai meriti avrebbon fatto Gi- sippo non curdr di perdere i suoi parenti per soddisfdre air amico, se non costei?
What greatness, what merits, could make Gisippus heedless of disobliging all his rela- tions to satisfy his friend, but this friendship?
These pronouns are also called indefinite, and indeter- minate, because they express their subjects in an indefinite or general manner.
Some grammarians have divided these pronouns into different classes ; but as we think source such a division would only tend to puzzle the student without much benefit, we shall put them down alphabetically, and speak of them in the same order.
Some of these pronouns have no plural, others have no singular, and others have both singular and plural, as we shall presently see.
Some of these pronouns are also adverbs, and as such, we shall speak of them in their respective places.
The following pronouns, taken as adjectives, have genders and numbers.
These pronouns are declined with the indefinite article, di, a, da.
Altro, however, taken in a determined sense, has the definite article; as, gli altri uomini, le altre donne, the other men, the other women.
All these pronouns may, in the singular, lose their last vowel, and take an apostrophe, before words beginning with a vowel.
Alcuno, however, may lose its last vowel before words beginning either with a vowel or a con- sonant, but not in the feminine.
All these pronouns, in the masculine, may lose their last vowel o, before words beginning either with a vowel OF IMPROPER PRONOUNS.
The following pronouns are indeclinable, admit of both genders, have no plural, and are declined with di, a 9 da.
The following pronouns have no singular.
Altri is of both genders, and of both numbers, and is declined thus : — Nom.
Section L OF THE NATURE OF VERBS IN GENERAL.
A verb, verbo, is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer ; as, Io sono, I am ; Io amo, I love ; Io soiw amatol I am beloved.
Verbs in Italian are of two kinds, personal and imper- sonal.
The personal is that which has three different persons, and is divided into — active attivo passive passivo neuter neutro reflective reflettivo reciprocal reciproco A verb active expresses an action, and necessarily implies an agent, and an object acted upon ; as, to love, amare ; I love God, Io amo Dio.
A verb passive expresses a passion or a suffering, or the receiving of an action, and necessarily implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted upon ; as, to be loved, essere amato ; Peter is loved by Anna, Pietro e amato da Anna.
A verb reflective expresses an action in which the agent acts, and is acted upon by himself.
I love myself, io mi amo ; he knows himself, egli si conosce.
A verb reciprocal is when the agent acts, and is acted upon by another agent ; and as two persons are required 112 OF VERBS.
Feter and Anthony beat each other, Pietro ed Antonio si bdttono ; that is, Peter beats Anthony, and Anthony beats Peter.
A verb impersonal is that which has not all the per- sons required to conjugate a verb.
They are of three sorts — 1.
Those of the first are called impersondli rigorosi, impersonal absolute ; as, tuona, it thunders ; balena, it lightens.
The third sort contains impersonals formed by verbs personal used in the third person with si before it ; as, si dice, it is said ; si fa, it is done.
In a verb, therefore, are to be con- sidered — numbers numeri persons persone moods modi tenses.
OF NUMBERS AND PERSONS.
Verbs have two numbers, the singular and the plural: as, I speak, io parlo; we speak, noi parliamo.
OF NUMBERS AND PERSONS.
Mood, or mode, is a particular form of the verb, shewing the manner in which the being, action, or pas- sion, is represented.
There are, in Italian, four moods of verbs.
Pinfinito the infinitive II.
Pimperativo the imperative 114 OF MOODS.
We begin to reckon the moods by the infinitive, because all the other moods are derived from the infinitive.
The infinitive mood expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, without any distinction of number or person ; as, amare, to love ; andare, to go ; perdere, to lose.
The indicative mood simply indicates or declares a thing, or asks a question ; as, egli ama, he loves ; egli e andato, he is gone ; or, ama egli?
Egli gode di per- fetta salute, benclie paja ammaldto, he enjoys perfect health, though he seems sickly.
Paja is the subjunctive governed by benclie, a conjunction.
Io non credo sia partito, I do not think he is gone away.
Sia is the subjunctive governed by the verb credo, and the con- junction che which is understood, thus, io non credo che siapartito.
The imperative mood is used for commanding, ex- horting, entreating, or permitting ; as, vditene, begone ; Jute attenzione ai vostri affdri, mind your business ; pre- ghiumo Iddio, let us pray to God ; anddte in pace, go in peace.
Though this last mood derives its name from its inti- mation of command, it is used on occasions of a very opposite nature, even in the humblest supplications of an inferior being, to one who is infinitely superior ; as, ddcci oggi il nostro pane quotididno, e rimetti a noi i nostri debiti, give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses.
Some grammarians have reckoned five moods instead of four, but we have been satisfied to exhibit such only as are obviously distinct, and necessary to answer our purposes.
Tense, tempo, being the distinction of time, admits of present, presente ; past, passdto ; future, futuro.
The present tense represents an action or event, as passing at the time in which it is mentioned.
The past tense represents an action or event, as elapsed at the time when it is mentioned.
The future expresses an action or event as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time.
As every mood is susceptible of tenses, we shall speak of each of them separately.
The infinitive has three tenses in Italian, the present, the past, and the future, as we observed before ; but without any precise determination of time.
The present is simply amdre, to love; vedere, to see.
The past is formed by the infinitive, avere, and the participle of any verb; as, av'ere amdto, to have loved ; avere creduto, to have believed.
The indicative has likewise three tenses, present, past, and future.
The present tense is — io amo I love tu leggi.
This tense is used in speaking of an action or event, as passing at the time in which it is mentioned.
Io conosco qudnto possono leforze d 'amore, I know how powerful love is.
I vostri rammarichii piu dafuria, che da ragione incitdti.
The present tense is likewise used in speaking of actions continued, with occasional intermissions, to the present time.
Ed avviene, che ogni Verier dX in su quest'' or a, io la giiingo qui, e qui ne fo lo strdzio che vedrdi ; and it happens, that every Friday about this time I overtake her here, and torment her, as you will see.
Giungo and fo are the actions taking place with the intermission of a week ; that is, from one Friday to another.
This tense is substituted for the past in animated narrations.
Esce veloce da quella tomba, corre al paldgio ; riort e piu incerto il suo passo, non e piu dubbia la via, non e piil oscura la notte ; he went quickly out of that tomb, ran to his palace; his steps were no longer uncertain, the way was no longer doubtful, night was no longer dark.
Esce, corre, and e, are all in the present tense, instead of the past, usci, corse, era.
The present tense is used in speaking of a future action, as in the following cases : — B.
II preterito imperfetto », the first imperfect tense, is— io aveva I had tu amavi thou lovedst egli parlava he spoke noi dicevamo we said voi facevate you did eglino scrivevano they wrote 1.
This tense in Italian represents the action or event, as remaining unfinished at a certain time past.
Io lavorava un loro giardino, bello e grdnde, e oltre a questo, andava alcuna volta al bosco per le legne, attigneva aequo, e faceva cotdli altri servigetti ; ma le donne mi davano si poco, che io non ne poteva appena pagare i calzdri; I had the care of a large garden ; and, besides that, I used sometimes to go to the forest for wood, I drew water, and did other services for them ; but my wages were so small, that they would scarcely find my shoes.
La moglie, die Isabella avea nome, his wife, who was called Isabella.
Era questo giardino vdgo molto, this garden was very pleasant.
La moglie era una giovane di pelo rosso, his wife was carroty.
Una vecchia die pareva sdnta Verididna che da beccdre alle serpi, an old woman who appeared St.
II quale assdi giovane, e bello della persona era, who was a very young and handsome http://promocode-slot.win/games-play-online/most-played-game-on-ps3-online.html />Aveva, era, pareva, first imperfect, not ebbe, fu, parve ; for in the latter case it would mean an action which took place only once.
This tense is used in speaking of actions inter- rupted.
Mentre stavan cendndo, venne il marito, while they were at supper, her husband came.
Egli mcontrb la Catella die veniva, he met with Catella, who was coming.
Stavan and veniva are actions interrupted.
II preterito indeterminate, the second imperfect tense, is — io amai I loved tu dicesti thou saidst egli parlo he spoke noi andammo we went voi scriveste you wrote eglino finirono they finished 1.
This tense represents an action or event past and finished a long time since, though the precise time is not denoted by the verb itself ; click the following article, otherwise, it represents an action or event happening only once, without leaving any traces of it behind, when the verb is accompanied with an adverb of time past.
E dietro a lei vide venire un cavalier bruno, and he saw a knight dressed in black following her.
Ma il cavaliere che questo vide, gli grido di lontano, but the knight who saw it, cried from afar to him.
Vide and grido show that the actions are past and finished, and no traces ©f them left behind.
Uno di la Badessa il vide, one day the Abbess saw him.
Fece, vide, fec% and notjuceva, vedeva,facevo, because they are here accompanied with il seguente di 9 ivno di 9 notte passata 9 all of which are adverbs of time, thai require this tense instead of the first imperfect.
Ilpreterito determinato 9 the perfect tense, is — io ho avuto I have had tu sei stato thou hast been egli e amato he is loved noi abbiamo veduto we have seen voi avete scritto you have written eglino hanno parlato they have spoken 1.
This tense refers to what has taken place a little while before.
Hottf io bene la promessa ser- vata?
Messer 9 no : voi m 1 avete fatto parldr con una stdtua di mdrmo.
What do you think of it?
Have I not kept my promise?
No, Sir ; you have made me speak this web page a marble statue.
Ed or volesse iddio che io fatto Vavessi 9 perciib che voi avete comperato, ed io non V ho venduto ; and now, would to heaven that I had done so ; because you have obtained it by purchase, without my selling it to you.
Hotf io servata, voi vri avetefatto, avete comperato, ho venduto, show the actions thai have taken place but a little while before, as the promise was made just before.
This tense denotes a thingvthat is past in such a manner that there is still actually remaining some part of the check this out to slide away, wherein we declare that the thing has been done ; and it is generally accompanied with an adverb of time.
Anzi £ ho sempre amato, e avuto caro innanzi ad ogni altro ; ma cosi m' e convemito fare per paura d' altrui ; I always loved you far beyond every other person ; but that behaviour was necessary, for fear of other people.
Io 9 misera me, gia sdno otto anni, f ho piii die la mia vita amato.
In the first example, ho amato, e convenuto, show that the actions are passed ; but a part of the time still remains, that is, she still loves him, and is still afraid.
Likewise, ho amato, in the second example, shows that the eight years are not yet elapsed.
Per tre secoli intieri non c'emai stato alcun cangiamento nelle leggi.
For three whole centuries no alteration has taken place in the laws, L'ho veduto due volte quest' anno, i" saw him twice this year.
Non sono stato all' opera questa settimana.
With regard to questa mattina, this morning, it is to be observed, that if the morning is already elapsed, we use the second imperfect with questa mattina ; but if the morning is not elapsed when we speak, the perfect tense is used.
If we OF THE TENSES.
II trapassato imperfetto, the first pluperfect tense, is — io aveva avuto I had had tu eri amato thou wast loved egli aveva veduto he had seen noi avevamo dato.
This tense represents an action, not only as past, but also, as done prior to another action which is about to begin.
Qudndo i monaci che detto avevan mattutino, corsono cola, e conobbero la voce di Ferondo ; the monks who had just ended their morning service ran thither, and recognised the voice of Ferondo.
Era Ferondo tutto pdllido, come colui, che tanto tempo era stato senza vedere il cielo ; Ferondo was quite pale, as he had been so long confined, without see- ing day-light.
In these examples, avevan detto shows an action done before corsono ; and era stato, before he came out of the tomb.
This tense, however, is subject to the same rules as the first imperfect, always observing the rule as above, namely, of using it in speaking of an action done just before another action is to begin.
II trapassato perfetto, the second pluperfect tense, is — io ebbi avuto I had had tu fosti amato thou wast loved egli ebbe veduto he had seen noi avemmo dato.
Or a in cost fdtti ragionamenti e in simili.
Ma poiche la gente alqudnto si fu rassicurata con lui, domanddndolo di indite, cose.
Ando nella camera alia donna, e quando detto 1'ebhe come agevolmente poteva il palqfreno guadagndre, le impose ; he went to his wife's room, and when he had told her how easily he could get the horse?
The future represents an action or event as yet to come, and is expressed two ways in Italian, as well as in English, viz.
II futuro imperfetto, the first future, is — lo avro I shall have tu sarai thou shalt be egli fara he shall do noi vedremo we shall see voi andrete you shall go eglino daranno %.
This tense is used to express future actions.
E come, disse la donna, vi pot?
Disse I abate ; eg li convien ch 7 e' 1 muoja, e cost Sandra ; And what!
He must die, answered the abbot, and thus he shall go thither.
This tense is made use of, instead of the present, in doubtful actions.
Che le avete fdtto che piange?
Dunqne piangera, Pallegrezza Bonfil.
No 9 pidnge per verecondia.
What have you done to make her cry?
Jn these two examples, parra and piangera are two actions, shewing doubt in the speaker.
In like manner, if any one knocks at the door of a room, those who are within say to each other : Chi mai sard?
Who can it be?
Or, if any one goes out, he who remains at home, says : Dove sard anddto colui?
Where can he be gone?
Ilfuturo perfetto, the second future, is — avro avuto I shall have had sarai stato thou wilt have been avra amato he will have loved avremo detto we shall have said avrete fatto you will have done avranno scritto they will have written 1.
This tense intimates that the action will be fully accomplished at or before the time of another future action or event.
Fdtevi dire qudndo, e dove io gli tdgliai la borsa, ed io vi diro quello eke io avro fatto ; order them to say when and where I robbed them, and I will tell you what I have done.
Beatrice} Ha detto a me che To chiamdva a Venezia una lettera di suo zio, ed ora dice che suo zio sta per rnorire.
Avro detto che ho da anddre per una lettera che trdtta di mio zio.
He told me he was to go to Check this out on account of a letter sent to him by his uncle ; and now he says his uncle is on his death- bed.
Perhaps I have said that I am to go for a letter which concerns my uncle, Avrd detto for ho detto.
In like manner, if we are told that such a person is come where we are, without knowing the cause of his coming, we say, perche rnai sara venuto?
Wherefore is he come?
Or, if any one were to ask another to guess where he has been, the answer is, Jbrse sarai andato alV Opera- perhaps you have been to the Opera ; sarai, for sei.
The indicative, then, has eight tenses, namely — I.
As to the English names, we have made use of those in Murray's Grammar ; and with respect to il preterito determinato, and trapassato perfetto, which the English language comprehends under the name of imperfect and pluperfect, the second imperfect, and second pluperfect, have been substituted.
The tenses of this mood express, as the indicative, the present, the past, and the future.
This tense represents a present and future action, only by the sense of the sentence.
Mi place die voi mi marinate— I am glad you wll get a husband for me.
Maritidte here, is future, OF THE TENSES.
Tutta fidta, non voglio che tu creda, che io nelV dnima stdta sia quello che nel viso mi sono dimos- trdta ; yet, do not imagine that I was as hard hearted as I seemed to be.
Creda here may be considered as the present tense, because it represents an action going to take place directly.
The imperfect likewise represents either a future action, or a past one.
Volesse represents a future action, as yet to come.
Avesse here denotes a past action, as the gentleman had a good opinion of his lady.
The past tense denotes only a past action, and has no need of examples.
This mood has also two tenses, simple and compound, which Buommattei calls passato and trapassdto indeterminate ; but as this name is the same as the pluperfect of the indicative, we will call them condiziondle semplice and composto.
See the conjugation of avere, page 129.
With respect to the use of the sub- junctive, see the Syntax.
The imperative has only two tenses ; namely — The present and the future, which have no first person singular.
The present is — abbi tu.
The present tense is used for commanding, exhort- ing, or entreating.
The mistress com- mands her maid.
A lady exhorts a man not to be afraid.
Deh, per Dio, Girolamo, vattene ; for God's sake, go away, GiroJamo.
A lady begs her lover to go away.
The future is the same as that of the indicative, and is likewise used for commanding, exhorting, and praying, to do an action, not in the present tense, and quickly, but some time after.
Tu prenderai un huon bastone e andratene al giardino.
In the above examples, a command, exhortation, or entreaty, is evidently implied.
Modern grammarians have not made mention of the future of the imperative ; but in this case we follow the example of Buommattei, as we are persuaded that it is quite necessary that the learner should be made ac- quainted with it.
Remarks on the Tenses.
In treating of the tenses, there are two things to which attention ought principally to be directed, the relation which the several tenses have to one another in OF THE TENSES, 127 respect of time, and the notice which they give of an action's being completed, or not completed.
The present tense and the first imperfect, both of the indicative and the subjunctive, as well as the first future, may be used either definitely or indefinitely, both with respect to time and action.
When they denote customs or habits, and not indi- vidual acts, they are applied indefinitely ; as — La religione e la base ffogni virtu — religion is the basis of all virtues.
Gli antichi Romani avevano un gran numero d?
Pur die sia buono — pro- vided it is good.
Benctie v } andasse — although he should go there.
In these examples, e, avevano, jhro, sia, andasse, are used indefinitely, both with regard to action and time ; for they are not confined to individual actions, nor to any precise points of present, past, or future time.
When they are applied to signify particular actions, and to ascertain the precise points of time to which they are confined, they are used definitely, and are formed by the simple tenses of stare, not of essere, and the active participles of the verb in question ; as in the fol- lowing instances : — Io sto scrivendo una letter a — I am writing a letter.
Credo ctiegli stia scrivendo — I think he is writing.
Temevo che egli non istesse scrivendo qualche lettera — I was afraid he was writing some letter.
Se staro dormendo, non mi svegliate — if I am sleeping, do not awake me.
In these examples, sto, stavi, stia, istesse, staro, are the simple tenses of the verb stare, which in English signifies to be.
These tenses mark the time ; and the gerund or active participle, with which they are accom- panied, denotes the action.
Thus, if we say sto, we mark the present tense without the action ; and by put- 128 OF AUXILIARY VERBS.
The other tenses of stare are not often used in this acceptation, and even the first future, of which we have given an example, has seldom been employed by good writers.
OF THE CONJUGATION OF PERSONAL VERBS.
The conjugation, la congiugazione, of a verb, is the regular combination and arrangement of its several num- bers, persons, moods, and tenses.
Before we begin to conjugate these verbs, it is neces- sary to state that Italian grammarians have generally conjugated essere, to be, before avere, to have; but the latter being in English used as an auxiliary to the former, and, besides, as we are to speak of active before we speak of passive verbs, we have thought proper to conjugate first avere, and then essere.
With respect to the tenses, we place the single ones before the compound ; and this change we think will render it easier for the student to conjugate them.
Conjugation of Avere, to have.
These participles, however, will be declinable on certain occasions.
I have to ho l thou hast tu hai he has egli ha she has.
I had io aveva 2 thou hadst tu aveVi he had egli aveva Plur.
I had io e'bbi thouhddst tu avesti he had egli ebbe Plur.
If, however, io is not dropped, aveva must be used.
The same may be said of the first person of the imperfect of all verbs in general.
The first and third person singular, and the third plural, of this tense, may lose their last v ; thus, io avea, egli avea, eglino aveano : however, if the first person singular is made to end in o, the syncopation cannot take place.
Not to be imitated.
I shall have io avrd i thou wilt have tu avrai he will have egli avra Plur.
Sing, I have had io ho avuto thou hast had.
I had had .
I shall have had io avro avuto thou wilt have had tu avrai avuto he will have had egli avra avuto Plur.
The first and third persons singular of the future must always have an accent on their last vowel.
Neither way is to be imitated 5 Avrebbe may also be changed into avria, and avrebbero into avr'ebbono, avnano, and avrieno ; all of which maybe used without impropriety.
No first person have thou.
No first person thou shalt have.
To conjugate a verb interrogatively, is to put the pronoun personal after it, as they do in English ; but sometimes the pronouns are dropped, and the interroga- tion is only distinguished by the inflexion of the voice, to learn which, the assistance of a master is required.
The English particle not is rendered by non ; which being accompanied with the verb, is to be put between the pronoun personal and the verb, in Italian.
I have it not.
There are more negatives, such as nothing, none, no- body ; which being united to the verb, are resolved by non niente, non alcuno, non nessuno.
I have nothing non ho niente thou hast none non ne hai alcuno he has nobody non ha nessuno Avere, joined with several substantives, forms dif- ferent modes of speaking ; as, avere freddo, to be cold; avere caldo, to be warm; all of which may be found with analogous examples in our Dictionary of Peculiarities.
Conjugation of Essere, to be.
£b be essere Gerund present.
I was b io era thou wast i.
I shall be io sard thou wilt be tu sarai he will be egli sara Plur.
Not to be imitated.
Not to be imitated.
Not to be imitated 4 Fosti and foste have often been spelt fasti and f teste.
Not to be imitated.
Not to be imitated.
Sing I had been.
I had been l.
I shall have been io sar6 stato thou wilt have been tu sarai stato he will have been.
Io era stato h I had been, and not io aveva stato ; and so on of all other tenses.
Here are some examples, out of the hundreds which we could set down, to confute his assertions.
L abate poi alqudnto fu stato — when the abbot had been some time.
La quale, poiche pikna di lagrime ed amaritudine fu stata alquanto — who, after having wept, and been some time afflicted.
Sing I may be io sia thou may st be.
I might be io fossi 3 thou mightest be tu fossi he might be egli fosse Plur.
I should be io sarei 4 thou shouldst be tu saresti he should be egli sarebbe 5 Plur.
Not to be imitated.
No first person be thou sii tu l let him be sia egli Plur.
No first person thou shalt be sarai tu 3 he shall be sara egli Plur.
It is to be observed, that ci may drop the i and take an apostrophe before a word beginning with any vowel but a and o ; but vi may lose the i before any vowel, without exception.
Qudnte rniglia ci ha?
Maso rispose, hdccene piil di milldnta ; how many miles are there?
Maso an- swered, there is an infinite number.
Egli ci avra mille modi di fare si, die mai non si sapra ; there will be a thousand ways of managing in such a case, that nobody will ever be the wiser.
Egli ci sono delle dltre donne, there are some women.
All the verbs are conjugated either with avere, or essere, as in English ; that is, the active with avere, the passive with essere ; but as, in Italian, there are many verbs that are not conformable to the English, in giving lists of all those that differ from them, we shall affix a mark to those that are conjugated with essere.
CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS.
Some grammarians have made four conjugations of Italian verbs, by reckoning those ending in ere short, for one, and those in ere long, for another.
Others have made five, by reckoning those in ire, that end in o OF REGULAR VERBS.
This, however, is not our intention, as so many conjugations are apt to create confusion ; and as constant practice has led us into the most proper method of jewel quest games play them, we say that the Infinitives of Italian verbs are terminated three several ways, by which three conjugations are formed.
The first consists of verbs ending in are, such as, parlare, to speak ; portare, to bring ; donare, to make a present of.
The second contains verbs ending in ere, both short and long ; such as, temere, to fear ; credere, to believe ; vender e, to sell.
The third comprehends verbs ending in ire ; such as, capire, to understand ; jinire, to finish ; pulire, to clean.
The regular verbs, the infinitives of which end in are, are terminated, throughout all their tenses, as follows : — Infinitive, are Gerund, ando Participle, ato INDICATIVE.
Present Tense, i i i iamo iate ino Imperfect Tense, assi assi asse assimo.
Present Tense, i a iamo ate ino Change are of the infinitive into the above-mentioned terminations, and you will find the simple tenses of the first conjugation, without exception.
As to the com- pound tenses, they are formed by putting the participle to the simple tenses of avere.
I bring io p6rt-o thou bringest.
I brought port-ai source broughtest port-asti he brought port-6 Plur.
I have brought ho portato thou hast brought hai portato he has brought ha portato Plur.
I had brought avevo portato thou hadst brought avevi portato " he had brought aveva portato Plur.
I had brought ebbi portato thou hadst brought avesti portato he had brought ebbe portato Plur.
I shall have brought avro portato thou shalt have brought avrai portato he shall have brought avra portato Plur.
I may bring io port-i thou 7ii ay st bring tu port-i he may bring egli port-i Plur.
I should bring port-erei I thou shouldst bring port-eresti he should bring port-erebbe 2 Plur.
No first person bring thou port-a let him bring port-i Plur.
Remarks on verbs in are.
This happens to be in the present and future of the indicative, in the present of the subjunctive, and the conditional and also the imperative ; as — Toccare, to touch.
I touched, tyc tocc-ai, asti, 6, ammo, aste.
I may touch, fyc tocc-hi, hi, hi, hiamo, hiate, hino Imperfect.
I might touch, tyc.
I prayed, fyc preg-avo, avi, ava, avamo, avate, avano Sec.
I prayed, fyc .
I shall pray, c.
I may pray, c.
I shall drive cacc-erd, erai, era, eremo, erete, eranno Conditional.
I should eat mang-erei, eresti, erebbe, erem- mo, ereste, erebbero All verbs whose infinitives end in are, except a few, which will be found in the irregular ones, are conjugated as the above.
Respecting the present tense, as there are some which are pronounced short and some long, we will insert a list of all of them at the end of the grammar.
The regular verbs, of which the infinitives end in ere, are terminated throughout all the tenses as follows: — Infinitive ere Gerund endo Participle uto.
Infinitive present do fear temere Gerund present.
I fear tem-o thou feared tem-i he fears tem-e Plur.
I feared tem-evo thou fearedst tem-e vi he feared tem-eva Plur.
I have feared ho tem-uto thou hast feared hai temuto he has feared ha temuto Plur.
I had feared ebbi temtito thou hadst feared avesti temuto he had feared ebbe temuto Plur.
I may fear io tem-a thou may st fear tu tern- a he may fear egli tem-a Plur.
I might fear io tem-e'ssi thou mightest fear tu tem-e'ssi he might fear egli tem-esse Plur.
I should fear tem-erei thou shouldstfear tem-eresti he should fear tem-erebbe Plur.
No first person fear thou tem-i let him fear tem-a Plur.
In the following list, all verbs marked with an asterisk make also etti 9 ette, ettero, in the second imperfect, like temere; and the others have only ei, e, erono 9 in the second imperfect.
Jo shine 1 ae rlsplendere to shine again l strl dere to shriek tessere to weave ritessere.
Jo sell again All the above verbs are conjugated like temere.
Jo consist desistere to leave off e esistere.
Esigere, to exact, is also regular ; except in the par- ticiple, which makes esatto.
Before we proceed, it is necessary to observe, that the verbs in ire, of which 7 e mezzo col califfo have properly formed a conjugation, are very few, and mostly irregular; and they have excepted more than two hundred of them, which are regularonly because they vary from the former ones in the present tense.
To obviate such a difficulty, we have thought proper to make a third conjugation of the great number of verbs in ire, as above mentioned, and to place the others as exceptions ; which alteration we may confidently as- sure learners is more easy, and obviously preferable to the usual mode.
Present Tense, isca isca isca iamo iate iscano Imperfect, issi issi isse issimo iste issero Conditional, irei iresti irebbe.
As to the com- l ii is preferable.
Infinitive present to finish finire Gerund present.
I finish fin-isco thoufinishest fin-isci he finishes fin-isce Plur.
I finished fin-ivo thou finishedst fin-ivi he finished fin-iva Plur.
I shall finish fin-iro thou shalt finish fin-irai he shall finish fin-ira Plur.
I had finished £bbi finito thou hadst finished avesti finito he had finished ebbe finito Plur.
J shall have finished avro finito thou shalt have finished avrai finito he shall have finished avra finito Plur.
I may finish io fin-isca thou may st finish tu fin-isca he may finish egli fin-isca Plur.
I should have finished.
No first person finish thou fin-fsci let him finish fin isca Plur.
£o embellish abolire to abolish abborrire 2.
Jo assuage ambire to aspire aramollire.
The same may be said of the second person plural of the present of the sub- junctive, and also of the gerund, which make abbiate ardire, and avendo ardire.
£o encourage e incrudelire.
£o grow brisk tfingelosire.
OF IRREGULAR VERBS ENDING IN are.
I go, Sfc vo, vai, va, andiamo, andate, vanno First imp.
I went,fyc and-avo, avi, ava, avamo, avate, avano Sec.
I might go, c.
I should go, fyc.
Vo may be changed into vado.
The future and conditional of andare are often conjugated regularly, thus: — cvndero, anderei : we ad- vise the student to use andro, and andre% as above.
For andrebbero, we find andrebbono ; but it is better to use andrebbero.
Instead of andai, ando, andarono, the Flo- rentines say, io andetti, egli andette % eglino andetiero.
Others say, io andiedi, egli andiede, eglino andiedero, or andarno ; but we advise the learner to adopt the regular way as the most proper, and free from affec- tation.
IV: Andare being conjugated with similar play lara croft games online just verb essere, the participle andato is to agree in gender and number with its nominative ; thus, if the person speaking, spoken to or of is a man, andato is to be used; -if a woman, andata ; when men, andati ; women, andate.
See Syntax of participles.
Thus, me ne idea pogo mad games play online help, te ne vai, se ne va, ce ne andiamo, ve ne andate, se ne vanno.
Riandare, to examine, and trasandare, to go beyond, are to be conjugated like portare.
Comandare, tramandare, rimandare, though they seem to be the derivatives of andare, are derivatives of mandare, and consequently they are conjugated like portare.
I give, fyc do, dai, da, diamo, date, danno First imp.
I gave, fyc davo, davi, dava, davamo, davate, davano Sec.
I may give, fyc dia, dia, dia, diamo, diate, diano Imperfect I might give, fyc.
I should give, fycdnrei, daresti, darebbe, daremmo, dareste, darebbero Imperative.
Give thou, fyc da, dia, diamo, date, diano Put the participle dato to the simple tenses of the verb avere, and you will find all the compound tenses.
For diedi, diede, diedero, we use io detti, egli dette, egiino deitero.
Both ways are very good.
For diede, diedero, we use die, diedono.
Not to be imitated.
Dia, dia, dia, diano, are often changed into dea, dea, dea, deano.
Not to be imitated.
The derivatives of dare are only riddre, to give again ; adddre, or addarsi, to addict one's self ; but cir- conddre, secondare, ricorddre, and such like, are regular, and belong to the first conjugation.
Fare, properly speaking, ought to belong to the second conjugation, as it formerly made facere ; but as this ter- mination is no longer in use, we have thought proper to 160 OF IRREGULAR VERBS IN are.
I made, tyc feci, facesti, fece, facemmo, faceste, fecero First fat.
I shall make, fyc.
I may make, c.
I might make, fyc.
I should make, fyc.
Instead of fo, faccio is often used in prose.
For facesti and faceste, festi and feste are used.
For fecero, we find feciono andferono.
OF IRREGULAR VERBS IN are.
I stand, fyc sto, stai, sta, stiamo, state, stanno First imp.
I shall stand, fyc.
I may stand, fyc stia, stia, stia, stiamo, stiate, stiano Imperfect.
I should stand, 4-c.
Stare, in speaking of the health, signifies to do, or be ; as, come state?
By adding di cdsa to it, it signifies to live, or dwell; as dove state di cdsa?
Stare signifies also to stop.
For more particulars, see our Dictionary of Peculiarities.
Instead of stetti, stette, stettero, some have made use of stiedi, stiede, stiedero.
Not to be imitated.
Stea, stea, stea, steano, have been much used instead of stia, stia, stia, stiano.
Not to be imitated.
Ristdre, to stop, only, is conjugated like stare ; but restdre, to remain ; costdre, to cost ; pestdre, to pound, and many more which seem derivatives of stare y are conjugated like portare.
OF IRREGULAR VERES ENDING IN ere.
Verbs ending in ere are of two sorts.
The first have their infinitives long, such as, cadere, giacere, tacere ; and the second, short, such as, ridere, scrivere, vivere.
The irregular verbs ending in ere long are the follow- mg, and their derivatives.
Before we begin to conjugate the irregular verbs in ere, let us observe that a verb, being irregular in the present tense of the indicative, is so in the present of the subjunctive ; and that if it be irregular in the future, it is so in the conditional.
That the first imperfect of the indicative and sub- junctive are always regular.
That the first and the second person plural of the present of the indicative, subjunctive, and imperative, are never irregular, except the second person plural of the imperative only of the verbs avere, dovere, sapere, which makes abbiate, dobbiate, sappiate, instead of avete, dovete, sapete.
That the second imperfect of an irregular verb has three persons regular, and three irregular.
The three regular are the second of the singular, and the first and OF IRREGULAR VERBS IN ere.
I fell cadd-i cadd-e cadd-ero I grieved.
I shall fall, §c cadro,cadrai, cadra, cadremo, cadrete, cadranno Subj.
I may fall, fyc cad-a, a, a, iamo, iate, ano Imperfect.
I might fall, c.
I should fall, §c.
The irregular tenses are preferable.
The derivatives of cadere are — accadere to happen decadere to decay discadere to fall away ricadere to fall again scadere to became due All these verbs are conjugated with essere.
Calera and calerebbe have been improperly used for carra and carrebbe ; as the former come from calare 9 to let down, and not from calere, as above.
The learner, therefore, is to make use of carra and carrebbe.
This verb signifies to contain, and has neither all the persons, nor all the tenses, like other verbs.
Buom- mattei, however, conjugates it throughout all its tenses like ternere, except in the present tense of the indicative, thus : — cappio, capi, cape, cappiamo, capete, cappiono.
In the present of the subjunctive, cappia, cappi, cappia, cappiamo, cappiate, cappiano ; and in the present of the imperative, capi t cappia, cappiamo, click to see more, cappiano.
As for the participle, some say it is caputo, others, catto, and others, again, capito ; but the latter is the participle of capire, to understand.
As this verb is obsolete, we advise the learner to use only the third person singular of the present tense, cape, tekken 3 game play online 3d that of the imperfect, capeva, or capea ; as it is these two persons which are often found in good authors.
OF IRREGULAR VERBS IN ere.
I owe, fyc debbo, debbi, debbe, dobbiamo, dovete.
I may owe, fyc debba, debba, debba, dobbiamo, dobbiate, debbano Imperfect.
I might owe, c.
I should owe, c.
The present also makes io devo, tu devi, egli deve, eglino devono, and also io deggio, egli dee, eglino deg- giono, and denno.
All these are equally good, except denno, which is better used in poetry.
The second imperfect makes also, io dovetti, egli dovette, eglino dovettero.
Not so good as the above.
Verbs having the particle si joined with the infini- tives, are called reflective, and are conjugated with the particles, mi, ti, si, in the singular ; and ci, m, si, in the plural, as follows : — Inf.
I grieve, tyc mi dolgo, ti duoli, si duole, ci dogliamo, vi dolete, si dolgono First imp.
I might grieve, Sfc.
I should grieve, fyc.
In the present of the indicative, we say also, io mi doglio, eglino si dogliono.
In the present of the subjunctive, we say also, io mi doglia, ti doglia, si doglia, and si dogliano.
In the imperative, si doglia, si dogliano.
I lay down, Sfc.
I lay down, Sec giacqui, giacesti, giacque, giacem- mo, giace'ste, giacquero First fut.
I shall lie down, c.
I may lie down, fyc.
I might lie down, fyc.
Piacere and tacere are conjugated in like manner.
Giaeere has also another participle, viz.
Piacere, signifying to like, is impersonal, when it has only the third person both singular and plural ; and, as in English, it is always personal, the student is to change the English nominative into the dative in Italian, and the accusative into the nominative, thus: — I like 168 OF IRREGULAR VERBS IN ere.
For tacqui, tacque, and tacquero, we find io tacetti, egli tacette, eglino tacettero, and tacettono : we advise the student to use the former, as sanctioned by all gram- marians.
All the derivatives of giacere, tacere, piacere, are — rigiacere to lie down again compiacere.
I may seem, c.
I might seem, c.
I should seem, c.
The participle of parere makes also paruto.
Not so good as parso.
Some bave used paro, paridmo, and pdrono, instead of pajo, pajamo, and pqjono ; but they are not to be imitated, as the former ones come from pardre, to adorn.
The same may be said of para, in the sub- junctive.
Instead of parvi, parve, parvero, we find pdrsi, parse, pdrsero ; but we think that the use of them may be left to poets only.
Parere is also impersonal, and then it has dnly the third person singular ; as, it seems, pare ; it seemed, pareva ; it shall seem, parra ; and so on of the other tenses.
I persuade, fyc persuad-o, i, e, iamo, ete, ono Ftrst imp.
I persuaded, fyc persuad-evo, evi, eva, evamo, evate, evano Sec.
I may persuade, fyc.
I should persuade, c.
Persuade thou, fyc persuad-i, a, iamo, ete, ano Put persuaso to the simple tenses of avere, and you will find all the compound tenses.
I can, fyc posso, puoi, pud, possiamo, potete, possono First imp.
I could, tyc pot-evo, evi, eva, evamo, evate, evano Sec.
I could, fyc pot-ei, esti, e, £mmo, este, erono First fut.
I shall be able, Src.
I may be able, fyc possa, possa, possa, possiamo, pos- siate, possano Imperfect.
I might be able, Sfc.
I should be able, c.
Not to be imitated.
I might remain, fyc.

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